Role and function of the heart
The role of the heart is in the pumping function of circulating blood throughout the body.
Pumping function is maintained by the repeated contraction and expansion of the heart muscle (heart muscle). When the heart muscle contracts, blood is pumped from the heart, and when it expands, the next blood pumped into the heart collects. The contraction and dilation of the myocardium is maintained at a constant rhythm by electrical signals.
The heart has four hollow chambers, of which the left ventricle and left atrium are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. And the right ventricle and right atrium are responsible for receiving blood returned from the entire body. Also, the blood in the right ventricle is sent to the lungs, where it replaces the carbon dioxide in the blood with oxygen and returns to the left atrium.
There are a total of four valves between the atrium and the ventricles and between the ventricles and blood vessels. Which open and close to control blood flow.
10 types of heart disease and symptoms / treatment of each disease
Heart disease can be broadly divided into diseases of the blood vessels connected to the heart and diseases of the heart itself.
Blood vessel disease
Many vascular diseases are caused by damage to the coronary arteries or the aorta.
A: Diseases of
coronary arteries A coronary artery is an artery that covers the surface of the heart like a crown of a tree branch. I am delivering.
Heart disease can be broadly divided into diseases of the blood vessels connected to the heart and diseases of the heart itself.Angina is a disease in which the inner diameter of the coronary arteries narrows (stenosis) for some reason. When this happens. The heart muscle does not get enough oxygen and nutrients. And the heart muscle cannot work.
Arteriosclerosis is the main cause of coronary artery stenosis. If you have hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia, the arterial wall becomes thick and hard, narrowing the inner diameter of the blood vessels.
The main symptoms are severe chest pain and tight chest tightness.
Treatments include taking drugs that prevent blood from clotting and dilating blood vessels, or taking a catheter (thin tube) to a narrowed area of a blood vessel and placing a stent there to improve blood flow. Or (catheter intervention) or create a new blood vessel that bypasses the narrowed area (bypass surgery).
2. Myocardial infarction
Angina is a disease in which the coronary arteries are narrowed. While myocardial infarction is a disease in which the coronary arteries are blocked and blood does not flow beyond them.
When blood stops flowing, oxygen and nutrients do not go to the heart muscle, and the heart muscle dies. Once dead myocardium does not regenerate. Therefore, when an acute myocardial infarction occurs. It causes acute heart failure (failure of the pumping function of the heart), and there is a risk of death.
As with angina, arteriosclerosis is the main cause of the onset. The lipid bumps on the arterial wall rupture. Causing blood clots (blood clots) to rapidly form and stop blood flow.
The main symptoms are severe chest pain that causes greasy sweat and a feeling of tightness in the chest. Which is longer than angina (angina takes a few minutes to 15 minutes) and lasts for 30 minutes or more. it continues.
The treatment is similar to angina, but if you develop an acute myocardial infarction. You should call an ambulance as soon as possible.
B: Diseases of the
aorta The aorta is a large blood vessel just outside the heart. It descends from the chest to the abdomen while branching blood vessels to the brain and both arms.
3. Aortic aneurysm
An aortic aneurysm is a disease in which a lump of lipids forms in the aorta. When this bump ruptures, it bleeds heavily, causing shock and threatening death.
The main cause of bumps is arteriosclerosis. Which is the entry of lipids into the arterial wall. It is often asymptomatic. But once the bump ruptures, it can cause severe chest pain.
If the hump ruptures, it must be brought to a cardiovascular surgeon promptly. Surgery should be considered if a high-risk aortic aneurysm is found. Even before it ruptures.
Treatment involves replacing the humped blood vessel with an artificial blood vessel (artificial blood vessel replacement) or inserting a stent at the hump to prevent rupture (stent-graft interpolation).
4. Aortic dissection
Aortic dissection is a disease in which the blood vessel wall of the aorta tears in the direction of blood flow. Creating another blood passage that is different from the original one.
When an aortic dissection occurs, the aorta may swell. Rupture, or impair blood flow. As with a ruptured aortic aneurysm. It is in a very dangerous situation and requires immediate attention.
The main symptom is sudden, severe chest or back pain that can move from the chest to the abdomen, legs, and other parts of the body as the dissociation progresses.
Causes include arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hereditary disorders.
As with aortic aneurysm, the treatment method is to replace the dissected blood vessel with an artificial blood vessel (artificial blood vessel replacement) or insert a stent (stent graft insertion).
Diseases of the heart itself include diseases of various parts of the heart and malfunctions of the heart.
C: Diseases of various parts of the
heart The parts of the heart are the valves that make up the heart. The heart muscle, and the atrial septum (the wall between the right and left atrium).
5. Valvular disease
Valvular disease is a disease in which one (or more) of the four valves in the heart are damaged.
Most of the way a valve is damaged is whether it is difficult to open (this is called stenosis) or it is difficult to close (this is called insufficiency).
In stenosis, the area of the valve opening becomes narrower, making it difficult for blood to flow further, and in insufficiency, blood regurgitation occurs. As a result, the ventricles and atrium are heavily strained, eventually leading to heart failure.
The main causes are congenital (natural), arteriosclerosis, and rheumatic fever. It is often asymptomatic for some time, but as it worsens, the heart becomes unable to maintain its pumping function and presents with symptoms of heart failure such as palpitation, dyspnea, and swelling.
The basis of treatment is whether to repair the valve damaged by surgery (valve plasty) or replace it with an artificial valve (valve replacement).
Cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the heart muscle (heart muscle) is damaged. Typical cardiomyopathy includes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the heart muscle becomes enlarged (thickened) and the diastolic function of the left ventricle is impaired. Symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain, and fainting. About half of the causes are said to be familial.
Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the heart muscle expands and the contractile force of the left ventricle decreases. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The lumen of the ventricles is normal, whereas, in dilated cardiomyopathy, the lumen expands. Symptoms include heart failure symptoms such as dyspnea. The cause is not well understood.
The main treatment is symptomatic treatment with drugs.
Read Also : How to keep the human heart healthy and strong?
7. Atrial septal defect
An atrial septal defect is a congenital disease in which the wall (atrial septum) between the right and left atrium is punctured.
This hole is open when everyone is a poet, and most people close it during the newborn stage. But some adults remain unclosed, causing blood to flow back through the hole.
It is often asymptomatic until puberty, and dyspnea and palpitation appear with aging.
Treatment involves surgically stitching holes together or sewing patches into the holes.
Other congenital heart diseases include ventricular septal defect (perforated walls of the left and right ventricles) and patent ductus arteriosus (originally. The ductus arteriosus that closes immediately after birth). However, there are many types, such as those that do not close and remain open) and tetralogy of Fallot (those in which four abnormalities occur at the same time).
The prevalence of congenital heart disease in babies is said to be 1-2%. However, depending on the disease, there are many cases in which it heals spontaneously as it grows from a child to an adult. Unfortunately, congenital heart disease in children who need treatment is often intractable and requires special treatment. So it is advisable to see a cardiac surgeon who specializes in children.
8. Heart tumor
A heart tumor is a tumor that forms in the heart and is a relatively rare disease. As far as primary tumors (tumors originating from the heart that have not metastasized) are concerned. About three-quarters are benign tumors, and about half of them are called myxoma. Most are sporadic and isolated, with 70-80% in the left atrium.
Symptoms include fever, weight loss, malaise, light-headedness, lightheadedness, and fainting. Peripheral blood vessels may be clogged by the tumor itself releasing or the blood clots attached to the surface peeling off. So it is recommended to remove it by surgery at an early stage to prevent sudden death and serious embolism. Can be done.
D: Heart failure A
heart disorder can also be caused by a malfunction in the pumping function of the heart or a malfunction in the electrical signals that control the heartbeat.
9. Heart failure
Heart failure is a condition in which the pumping function of the heart cannot properly fulfill its role. To be precise, heart failure is not the name of the disease. But a syndrome of pump dysfunction caused by various heart diseases. It is the most common cause of death among heart diseases. The pump function does not work well. So the whole body runs out of blood or becomes stagnant.
Those caused by disorders of the left ventricle and left atrium are called left heart failure, and those caused by disorders of the right ventricle and right atrium are called right heart failure. Left heart failure causes dyspnea and palpitation, and right heart failure causes swelling of the limbs and swelling of the liver.
Treatment includes relieving symptoms with drugs and mechanically assisting or acting as a pump function.
arrhythmias are disturbances in the electrical signals that control the heartbeat. The electrical signal is emitted at the upper end of the right atrium and is transmitted to the entire heart in sequence. But in arrhythmia. The way it is transmitted becomes abnormal for some reason, and the beat is too early (tachycardia) or too late. Or (bradycardia) or the rhythm is disturbed. As a result. The pumping function of the heart is reduced.
Tachycardia includes ventricular fibrillation in which the ventricle trembles finely, and atrial fibrillation in which the atrium trembles finely. The signal is not transmitted to the atrium).
Treatment is mainly drug-based pulsation control. But if ventricular fibrillation occurs, there is a risk of sudden death. So use an AED (automated external defibrillator), etc. Action is required.
When atrial fibrillation occurs, blood clots are more likely to form in the atrium. Which increases the risk of flying to the brain and causing a stroke. So the Maze procedure to control atrial fibrillation may be considered.
In addition to this, many heart diseases such as Takayasu’s arteritis. Which causes chronic inflammation of the aorta, and infective endocarditis, which causes bacterial infection of the endocardium (heart valves, etc.), to name a few. there is. If you have any symptoms that you care about. Please visit a heart disease specialist.
Check for symptoms of heart disease! What are the characteristics of people with a bad heart?
The following characteristic symptoms appear in heart disease.
Dyspnea or shortness of breath
If you have chronic heart failure, you may have difficulty breathing or shortness of breath due to the accumulation of water in the lungs (pulmonary edema) or congestion in the lungs (pulmonary congestion).
Initially, you may be out of breath due to physical activity such as climbing stairs or lifting luggage (exercise dyspnea). But as the symptoms progress, dyspnea may suddenly occur at night (paroxysmal nocturnal breathing). Difficulty) or when you lie down (orthopnea).
In addition, sudden myocardial infarction and aortic dissection may cause sudden dyspnea.
Chest pain and chest discomfort
When acute myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, or pulmonary embolism (a condition in which blood vessels in the lungs are clogged with blood clots) occurs, severe chest pain and chest discomfort (burning feeling, pressure feeling, etc.) occur. Emergency response is required for these heart diseases.
In addition, angina, aortic stenosis, and acute pericarditis also cause chest pain and chest discomfort.
Palpitations is a condition in which you feel that your heart is not beating normally. Suddenly you start to get excited, or the pulse jumps momentarily. The main heart diseases that cause palpitations are heart failure and arrhythmias.
Edema is a condition in which excess water accumulates in the cells of the body. The main heart disease that causes swelling is heart failure.
Edema is most likely to occur on the hands, feet, face, eyelids, fingertips, scrotum, and anterior surface of the tibia. To find out if it is swollen, for example, try pressing the front of the tibia with your finger for at least 10 seconds. If the surface of the shin is depressed when you release your finger, it is swelling.
Cyanosis is a condition in which the skin and mucous membranes appear purple. When the amount of hemoglobin that is not bound to oxygen in the arterial blood increases for some reason. The blood changes color from bright red to dark blue. For this reason, the lips, ears, and nail bed, where the capillaries are easily visible, appear purple.
It occurs when the oxygen concentration of arterial blood decreases due to congenital heart disease or decreased lung function, or when the peripheral capillaries lack blood volume due to arteriosclerosis or decreased cardiac output.
Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness that can lead to falls and trauma. It is caused by a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain. Causes include arrhythmia, heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction.
As the heartbeat normalizes, it naturally regains consciousness, but caution is required as it may be a precursor to sudden death.
Shock is a condition in which blood does not circulate properly and blood flow to important organs cannot be maintained.
Pallor of the face, cold sweat, collapsed state, cyanosis, tachypnea, decreased blood pressure, decreased urine volume, etc. appear, and the pulse is hard to touch and becomes tachycardia. Failure to take appropriate measures immediately can lead to multiple organ failure and death.
Under what conditions should I go to the hospital?
Many heart diseases are asymptomatic for a while even if they develop, as seen in valvular disease. Even in acute myocardial infarction, about half of the patients have no precursor.
However, if you see a doctor after the symptoms appear, or if you have a seizure and are taken to the hospital, the response is often delayed.
Therefore, if you feel a little strange that your body is something different from normal, you should consult a cardiologist as soon as possible.
For example, if you’re on stairs or hills that you’ve been comfortable with, you’re out of breath every time you climb, you suddenly gain weight, or you often get up in the water at night, suspect heart failure first.
Many people are optimistic that even if they suddenly have a pain in their chest or feel pressure in their chest, they will be cured if they are at rest, but this is a danger signal for angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. There is a possibility of.
Palpitations may be a sign of arrhythmia or heart failure, and swelling of the limbs may also be a sign of heart failure. If you leave fainting unattended, you may suddenly die. A slight discomfort in your body is a heart-warming warning to you that you should be seen by a doctor early.
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